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Submission by China on the modalities and procedures for inclusion of afforestation and reforestation project activities under the CDM in the first commitment period

Submission by China
on the modalities and procedures
for inclusion of afforestation and reforestation project activities
under the CDM in the first commitment period

March 12, 2003

 

In accordance with FCCC/SBSTA/2002/6, China submits following views on the modalities and procedures for including afforestation and reforestation project activities under the CDM in the first commitment period. Further views may follow.

China is of the view that the modalities and procedures to be developed shall be guided by the preamble of the draft decision -/CMP.1 (land-use, land-use change and forestry) (FCCC/CP/2001/13/Add.1) and shall not be in conflict with other provisions of the decision.

China's submission was formatted within the framework of the draft text of the draft decision -/CMP.1 (Article 12) (FCCC/CP/2001/13/Add.2) for easier reference.


A. Definitions

1. Definitions for afforestation, reforestation, deforestation and forest in the present modalities and procedures shall remain exactly the same as those agreed, i.e.:

 (a) "Forest" is a minimum area of land of 0.05-1.0 hectares with tree crown cover (or equivalent stocking level) of more than 10-30 per cent with trees with the potential to reach a minimum height of 2-5 metres at maturity in situ. A forest may consist either of closed forest formations where trees of various storeys and undergrowth cover a high proportion of the ground or open forest. Young natural stands and all plantations which have yet to reach a crown density of 10-30 per cent or tree height of 2-5 metres are included under forest, as are areas normally forming part of the forest area which are temporarily unstocked as a result of human intervention such as harvesting or natural causes but which are expected to revert to forest;

 (b) "Afforestation" is the direct human-induced conversion of land that has not been forested for a period of at least 50 years to forested land through planting, seeding and/or the human-induced promotion of natural seed sources;

 (c) "Reforestation" is the direct human-induced conversion of non-forested land to forested land through planting, seeding and/or the human-induced promotion of natural seed sources, on land that was forested but that has been converted to non-forested land. For the first commitment period, reforestation activities will be limited to reforestation occurring on those lands that did not contain forest on 31 December 1989;

2. Non-permanence means the temporary nature and reversibility of greenhouse gas removals, which are vulnerable to natural disturbances and anthropogenic practices, achieved by an afforestation or reforestation CDM project activity;

3. "TCCR", standing for " temporary Certified Carbon Removal", means a unit issued for afforestation or reforestation CDM project activities in the first commitment period pursuant to Article 12 of Kyoto Protocol and requirements thereunder, as well as the relevant provisions in the present modalities and procedures, expiring in five years from issuance and being equal to one metric tonne of carbon dioxide equivalent, calculated using global warming potentials defined by decision 2/CP.3 or as subsequently revised in accordance with Article 5;


B. Executive board

The executive board shall supervise the afforestation and reforestation CDM project activities, under the authority and guidance of the COP/MOP, and be fully accountable to the COP/MOP. In this context, the executive board shall:



(..) Ensure the TCCRs are fully compensated upon their expiry by, inter alia, tracking the credits in the cancellation accounts.


E. Designated operational entities

27. A designated operational entity shall:

 ( ) Validate proposed afforestation or reforestation CDM project activities;

 ( ) Calculate the net amount of greenhouse gases removed by the afforestation or reforestation CDM project activity using the approved calculation procedure and, if appropriate, use additional data from other sources;

 ( ) Adjust the calculated amount of greenhouse gases removed accordingly when evidence is found, and not certify the amount of carbon sequestered if an adjustment is not possible;

 ( ) Verify and certify net increase in removals by sinks of greenhouse gases;

 ( ) Perform one of the following functions related to a given afforestation or reforestation CDM project activity: validation or verification and certification. Upon request, the executive board may, however, allow a single designated operational entity to perform all these functions within a single afforestation or reforestation CDM project activity;

 ( ) Monitor and verify the carbon sequestration before re-issuance of TCCRs.



G. Validation and registration

37. The designated operational entity selected by project participants to validate a project activity, being under a contractual arrangement with them, shall review the project design document and any supporting documentation to confirm that the following requirements have been met:



(c) bis. Project participants have submitted to the designated operational entity documentation on the analysis of the social impacts of the project activity, including measures to monitor and minimize adverse impacts and ensure compatibility with related national policies;



40. The designated operational entity shall:

(a) Prior to the submission of the validation report to the executive board, have received from the project participants written approval of voluntary participation from the designated national authority of each Party involved, including confirmation by the host Party that the project activity assists it in achieving sustainable development, and have received the written approval of the social impact assessment and environmental impact assessment of the project activity from the host Party designated national authority;



(..) Validate social impact assessment and environmental impact assessment of the project activity;

(..) If socio-economic or environmental impact is significantly adverse, an A&R CDM project activity should not be approved as a CDM project, either by the designated operational entity or the executive board.

43. An afforestation or reforestation CDM project activity is additional if the net removal by sinks resulting from the afforestation or reforestation CDM project activity is higher than those that would have occurred in the absence of the proposed CDM project activity, and if the net removal by sinks resulting from an afforestation or reforestation CDM project activity goes beyond institutional and regulatory requirements or commercial practice. An afforestation or reforestation CDM project activity is not additional if similar activities have been undertaken in recent years in the region of the project.

44. The baseline for a CDM project activity is the scenario that reasonably represents the net changes in carbon stocks and greenhouse gas emissions that would occur in the absence of the proposed activity. A baseline shall cover above-ground biomass, below-ground biomass, litter, dead wood, and soil organic carbon pools, unless the proponent is able to provide transparent and verifiable information that the excluded pool is not a source, and take into account non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions of removals.

45. A baseline shall be established:


(..) Taking into account relevant national and/or sectoral policies and circumstances, such as historical land uses, practices and trends, cultural traditions, socio-economic conditions, current estimates of the carbon stocks on the project land, future trends at sectoral and national levels, sources of project financing, and the project intent.

48. In choosing a baseline methodology for a project activity, project participants shall select from among the following approaches the one deemed most appropriate for the project activity, taking into account any guidance by the executive board, and justify the appropriateness of their choice:

 (a) The existing emissions and removals that would otherwise occur;

 (b) The net greenhouse gas removals by sinks due to use of the land that represents an economically attractive course of action, taking into account barriers to investment or other barriers; or

 (c) The most likely prospective land use at the time the project starts.

49. Crediting period for a proposed afforestation or reforestation CDM project activity shall be five years.

50. The amount of leakage shall be deducted from the net increase in the quantity of carbon stocks in the specified pools. If the leakage is expected to be large or not easily measurable or attributable, the project shall be rejected.

51. Leakage is defined as the increased emissions of GHG which occur outside the project boundary due to the afforestation or reforestation CDM project activities, and which are measurable and directly attributable to the CDM project activity, including emissions associated with a previous activity, such as agriculture shifted elsewhere, reductions in the rate of afforestation and reforestation activities elsewhere, and increasing emissions due to changed deforestation rates elsewhere.

52. The project boundary shall encompass all anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases under the control of the project participants that are significant and reasonably attributable to the CDM project activity.

(..) An afforestation or reforestation CDM project activity shall be designed with a view to minimizing leakage, through involving local participants in the project design, developing projects that are unlikely to lead to market displacement, and ensuring that the project activity does not change the life cycle of production, etc.

 

H. Monitoring


53. Project participants shall include, as part of the project design document, a monitoring plan that provides for:

 (a) The collection and archiving of all relevant data necessary for estimating or measuring the net carbon stored in each specified pools and non-CO2 greenhouse gas fluxes occurring within the project boundary during the crediting period;

 (b) The collection and archiving of all relevant data necessary for determining the baseline of the net increase in carbon stock and non-CO2 greenhouse gas fluxes within the project boundary during the crediting period;


 (d) bis. The collection and archiving of all relevant data necessary for the analysis of the socio-economic impacts of the afforestation or reforestation project activity;

 (d) tir. The collection and archiving of all relevant data necessary for the assessment of the environmental impact, including impacts on biodiversity and natural ecosystems, of the afforestation or reforestation project activity;

 (f) Procedures for the periodic calculation of the net increased carbon stock and non-CO2 GHG emissions by the proposed CDM project activity, and for leakage effects;

 ( ) Implementation of the measures contained in the socio-economic and environmental impact assessment documentation to minimize negative impacts;

 ( ) Implementation of the measures to minimize the risk of non-permanence of the afforestation or reforestation CDM project activities.

 ( ) Techniques and methods for sampling and measuring individual carbon pool that reflects commonly accepted principles and criteria concerning forest inventory, soil sampling and ecological surveys.


(53) bis. Permanent sample plots shall be established and maintained for evaluating changes in forest carbon pools and non-CO2 greenhouse gas fluxes throughout the project lifetime. The sample plots must be selected and managed in a way that does not bias the estimate of the carbon sequestered.

(53) tir. The emissions and removals in control sites for baseline establishment shall be measured at the same time.



I. Verification and certification


61 bis. Credits accrued from an afforestation or reforestation CDM project activities shall be calculated on the basis of the increased actual carbon stock of the afforestation or reforestation CDM project activities. Net GHG benefits of an afforestation or reforestation CDM project activity shall be adjusted for leakage, uncertainty and non-anthropogenic effects, including CO2 concentration above the pre-industrial level and indirect nitrogen deposition.
61 tir. The designated operational entity shall assess whether any sample plot has been managed in a way that would bias the estimate of the net amount of greenhouse gases sequestered. If evidence of manipulation of any sample plot is detected, the designated operational entity shall adjust the calculated amount of greenhouse gases sequestered accordingly, or if an adjustment is not possible, not certify the amount of carbon sequestered.

61 quart. Before certifying the GHG benefits of an afforestation or reforestation project activity, the designated operational entity contracted to do so shall verify the implementation of the provisions contained in the social impact assessment documentation and environmental impact assessment documentation;

 

J. Issuance

66 Upon being instructed by the executive board to issue TCCRs for a CDM project activity, the CDM registry administrator, working under the authority of the executive board, shall, promptly, issue the specified quantity of TCCRs into the pending account of the executive board in the CDM registry, in accordance with Appendix D below. Upon such issuance, the CDM registry administrator shall promptly:

 (a) Forward the quantity of CERs TCCRs corresponding to the share of proceeds to cover administrative expenses and to assist in meeting costs of adaptation, respectively, in accordance with Article 12, paragraph 8, to the appropriate accounts in the CDM registry for the management of the share of proceeds;

 (b) Forward the remaining CERs TCCRs to the registry accounts of Parties and project participants involved, in accordance with their request.

 

APPENDIX B
Project design document




2. The purpose of this appendix is to outline the information required in the project design document. A project activity shall be described in detail taking into account the provisions of the annex on modalities and procedures for a CDM, in particular, section G on validation and registration and section H on monitoring, in a project design document which shall include the following:



(b) bis. Documentation on the analysis of the socio-economic impacts;

(..) Documentation on the analysis of the environmental impacts, including impacts on biodiversity and natural ecosystems;

(..) Description of how to factor out the indirect effect of CO2 fertilization and nitrogen decomposition;

(..) Description of the measures to minimize all potential uncertainties;

(..) Description of the treatment of uncertainties in the calculation of net profits;

(..) Description of the measures to minimize the risks, including non-permanence, negative socio-economic and environmental impacts, and financial viability.

 

APPENDIX D
Clean development mechanism registry requirements




3. The CDM registry shall have the following accounts:



(..) At least one account for the purpose of canceling ERUs, CERs, TCCRs, AAUs and/or RMUs equal to TCCRs which have already been used to demonstrate the compliance of a Party with its commitment under Article 3, paragraph 1;

(..) At least one account for the purpose of canceling expired TCCRs, which have not been used to demonstrate the compliance of a Party with its commitment under Article 3, paragraph 1;…

7. Each TCCR shall have a unique serial number comprising the following elements:



(f) Expiring date: the exact date as of that the TCCR will be invalid.

Source: Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China

Date:Mar 12,2003